"The sea on which the Greeks float is called the Atlantic" , Herodotus wrote about the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean and it covers an area of 82 million square kilometers. It is almost two times less than the Pacific Ocean, but its size is constantly increasing. From the island of Iceland to the south in the middle of the ocean extends a powerful ridge. Its tops are the Azores and the Ascension Island. The mid-range is a large mountain chain in the ocean. It grows wider every year by about 2.5 cm. The deepest place in the Atlantic is the basin located north of the island of Puerto Rico . Its depth is of 9218 meters. If 150 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean did not exist, then for the next 150 million years, the scientists assume, it ceases to hold more than half of the globe. The Atlantic Ocean strongly influences the climate and the weather in Europe .
Seas of the Atlantic Ocean are the Mediterranean, the Barents Sea, the Caribbean, the Black Sea, the Sargasso Sea of Azov, the Marmara Sea, the Irish sea, the Aegean sea, the Adriatic sea, the Tyrrhenian sea, the Ionian sea and the North Sea.
The Atlantic Ocean has many islands. The Islands of the Atlantic Ocean are the Canary Islands, the Falkland Islands, the British and others. Most major ports are: Boston, Halifax, New York, Rotterdam, Marseilles, Hamburg, London, Genoa, St. Petersburg, Buenos Aires. The temperature varies depending on the season and the location of the site. So at the equator, the water temperature reaches 26-27 ° C, and on the coast of the North America from 0 to 7 ° C.
The flora and the fauna of the Atlantic Ocean are extraordinarily diverse. So, in the middle and in the northern latitudes, you can see seals, whales, sea lions, tropical sharks, fish, parrotfish, sea urchins and dolphins. There is plentiful fish in the Atlantic Ocean. Of great economic importance are Trescos and the herring fish. More than half of the world's catch constitutes of herring, cod, tuna and sardines.
Facts and figures
Area: 91.6 million sq km
The maximum width: 7223 km
The average depth: 3597 m
The maximum depth: Puerto Rico Trench (8742 m)
Mineral resources: oil, natural gas, marine fisheries: fish (cod, herring, flounder, halibut , haddock, sardine), shellfish
The Largest island: Greenland
The Atlantic Ocean began to form 150 million years ago, when the displacement of the earth's crust separated the North and the South America from Europe and Africa. This is the youngest of the oceans named in honor of the god Atlas, who was worshiped by the ancient Greeks. Ancient people such as the Phoenicians began to study the Atlantic Ocean around the VIII century BC. However, only in the IX century AD. the Vikings managed to reach the coast of Europe to Greenland and North America . Beginning with the "golden age", the development of the Atlantic was laid by, Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer in the service of the Spanish monarchs. In 1492, his little squadron of three ships, entered the Caribbean bay after a long storm. Columbus believed that he swims in the East Indies, but in fact he discovered the so-called New World - America. Soon it was followed by other explorers from Portugal , Spain , France and England . The study of the Atlantic Ocean continues till nowadays. At present, to map the sea floor, scientists use the sonar (sound waves). The Atlantic Ocean is fished by many countries. People were fishing in these waters for millennia, but modern-fishing travelers had led to a significant reduction of fishing stocks. The Atlantic Ocean continues to play an important role in the international trade. Many important commercial sea routes pass through the Atlantic Ocean.
Holidays in the Atlantic Ocean
Holidays in the Atlantic Ocean is truly diverse, as it washes the shores of many countries. Choosing a country holiday, should be based on personal preference, budget, family composition (vacation with children). However, you can highlight some of the best beaches of the Atlantic Ocean, world-famous:
- The beaches of Portugal (Ilha de Tavira, Lagos and Albufeira). On these sandy beaches you lie down very pleased, admiring the waves of the ocean and listening to the noise of the port cities with their lives boiling;
- The beaches of the Canary Islands ( La Gomera). This beach is the best suited for those who want to escape from the hustle and bustle and relax. Also, tourists are attracted by the black volcanic sand - one of the characteristics of these beaches;
- In South Africa there are many beaches, but one of the most attractive is the beach in Cape Town.
The sand is light brown, the water has a turquoise color, the wind freshens. Pirates, reggae, Cuban cigars - all these betray a special atmosphere of the Caribbean Sea. Who does not want to visit the sea, which scoured the expanse of Francis Drake and Henry Morgan? That is why the holiday in the Caribbean is a favorite for many tourists. Have you ever been on the Red, Black and the Mediterranean Seas, and think that there are no seas of interest to tourists? There is also the Baltic Sea. Of course, the rest of the Baltic Sea is not included in the top 3, but it is , for sure, in the top 10. If you cannot choose a particular country, you can appeal to the Atlantic Ocean cruises . This is a great way to see many new places and enjoy the majestic Atlantic Ocean.
By Romanelli Ana
The Oceans of the World .
Terra is the planet's oceans. Life depends crucially, more than ever, on the respect that people will have to the oceans. They are and will remain the cradle of life. A romance voyage with saturated air, breathing the sea air is a necessary condition for a quality rest. This improves the immunity of the person and receives a charge of vivacity enough for a few months. The sea air, rich in iodine salts, sodium chloride promotes cell regeneration and the slowing of the aging process. The sea calms, the sound of the waves, and the vast expanse of the water that a person can watch endlessly is good for our health. When combined with new experiences, excursions and trips, sea and ocean tours give a great therapeutic effect. The oceans and the seas, the rivers, the lakes and the streams cover 75% of the surface of our planet. The amazing underwater world attracts many travelers. In the past, a travel was associated with the seas and oceans. Geographical discoveries are inextricably linked with the travelers. The world knows them since the Middle Ages and starting the list with Columbus and ending with Heyerdalom and Jacques-Yves Cousteau.
Hydrosphere is the collection of all water bodies of the world: oceans , rivers , lakes , reservoirs, wetlands, groundwater, glaciers. Water is the basis of the hydrosphere, one of the most common chemical compounds on the Earth. This is the only substance that under natural conditions on the surface of our planet is found in solid, liquid or gaseous state. It is the main component of the living organisms. Water body is the permanent or the temporary concentration of the natural waters on the land surface or in rocks with distinctive forms of distribution and features of the regime. Water bodies are the seas, oceans, rivers, lakes, marshes, reservoirs, groundwater, and water channels, ponds and other places of constant concentration of water on the land surface (in the form of snow). The world ocean is the bulk of the hydrosphere, a continuous aqueous envelope of the earth surrounding the continents and islands distinguished by a salt composition. The oceans are regulators of the heat. Oceans are rich in food, mineral and energy resources.
The boundaries between oceans have been established by the International Hydrographic Organization , so the Antarctic Ocean coast extends from Antarctica to 60 degrees latitude. One billion people ( 17% of the population) depend directly on the ocean as the only source of protein. Between 70 – 80% of oxygen is produced by the oceans. The word ocean from the Greek “ Ωκεανός” , on behalf of the Greek god of the Ocean is the largest water body, a component of the World Ocean , located among the continents , which has a system of water circulation and other special features. The surface area of the world's oceans, which consist of oceans and seas is about 75 % of the surface of the Earth (about 361 million square kilometers). The science that studies the oceans is called oceanography . In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization adopted a division into five oceans of the world .
However, later on the provision of a separate Southern Ocean refused, and it is now officially back on the Earth’s four oceans:
The Atlantic Ocean
Area: 91 million km 2
Size: 329.7 million km 3
Average depth: 3600 meters
Maximum depth: 8742 meters
The Indian Ocean
Area: 73 million km 2
Volume: 292.1 km 3
Average depth: 3890 meters
Maximum depth: 7725 meters
The Arctic Ocean
Area: 14 000 000 km 2
Volume: 18.1 km 3
Average depth: 1225 meters
Maximum depth: 5527 meters
The Pacific Ocean
Area: 169 million km 2
Size: 710 km 3
Average depth: 4280 meters
Maximum depth: 11 022 m
The largest of these is the Pacific Ocean, an area of approximately 169 million square km, the Atlantic Ocean, which area is 91 million square km is the third largest ocean, the Indian and the smallest ocean - the Arctic, an area of approximately 14 million square km. The oceans are deep waters. If the surface of the ocean is warmed up by the sun, at the depth, its temperature can fall and fall , even below -1 C. The water in all parts of the vast ocean is never quiet, constantly moving. Such movements of the water over long distances are called currents. The currents are of several types: superficial, deep and bottom. The main reason for the surface currents (drift) is a breeze. The sun, the chemical transformations and the attraction of the moon are reasons for the movement of water in the ocean. The colder or the saltier water . So, for example, when dealing with warm water, the cold goes into the depths. Thus deep and bottom currents can be formed. The Russian Admiral Makarov scientist discovered in the XIX century an undercurrent in the Bosporus. He found that the more saline waters of the Marmara Sea flows into the Black Sea current , less saline water is carried by the current from the Black Sea of Marmara. There are ocean currents that arise due to the inclination of the sea level. These include, in particular, to Florida for the Caribbean, which is formed as a result of the surge of the water over the surface in the Gulf of Mexico.
We cannot know the answer to the question about the formation of the seas and oceans on the planet. Some scholars suggest that they arose in the following way. After the appearance of the planet, the Earth was surrounded by a thick blanket of clouds. Gradually, the Earth cooled and long rains poured on the surface, which filled with water all the cavities in the earth's crust. Thus, the oceans and the seas were formed. Later, when the continents began to move, all moving from each other, the water began to fill the distance between them. So they formed the oceans, which are available now.